varieties, functions, categories, insurance companies

Each person is afraid of his own future, the health of children, the safety of property. In response to human concerns, insurance emerged. To insure means to protect, to protect from something. A number of functions are inherent in insurance, including risk, savings, investment and preventive. You can apply to any insurance company for protection of interests, but “any” in fact can only create the appearance of protection. To be confident in the future, choose a trusted insurer.


What it is

At the heart of any insurance is “fear”. Fear for life, property, your financial situation and a huge number of other fears. If fear exists, there must be a way to defend against it.

Insurance is a form of protection of an individual, a group of persons, property interests from adverse situations of a personal or material nature.

Insurance has a socio-economic nature. Social is manifested in its focus on the interests of society, the creation of personal and material guarantees. The economic essence is inherent in insurance, since for its implementation there is a redistribution, accumulation and use of funds.


Any socially useful phenomenon expresses its
essence through its inherent functions. Therefore, in order to better understand the “filling”
insurance, consider the functions performed by it.

  1. The fundamental purpose is expressed in the performance of the risk function. Insurance exists precisely because of the existence of risks: illness, old age, loss of property and others. Within the boundaries of the risk function, the risks of all insured are balanced, because each participant introduces a different kind of danger, greater or lesser. And the formed monetary fund should be of such size as to cover the risk of each and every one.
  2. Insurance, as a social phenomenon, also performs a preventive function. It manifests itself in two ways. On the one hand, the warning consists in the advance protection of especially important interests, because we turn to the insurer not “after” an unpleasant situation, but “before”. On the other hand, part of the accumulated money is always spent on preventive measures, that is, aimed at increasing awareness and security.
  3. Insurance has a savings function. It is understood that upon reaching the age specified in the contract, the person will receive a cash payment.
  4. Since insurance is associated with the turnover of a huge amount of money, it has a control function. It consists in the targeted use of cash reserves, approximately the same conditions for all policyholders, the financial ability of the insurer to provide compensation to all insured, the availability of information on the activities of insurance companies. Since 2013, the administration of the activities of insurers has been carried out by the Financial Market Service of the Central Bank of Russia. Unfortunately, there are a lot of unscrupulous companies, but the said service is actively fighting them.
  5. It may sound unusual, but insurance has an inherent investment function. When a person prepares in advance for some important events in life, for example, for a wedding or a child’s admission to university, he can insure such events. And at the appointed time, the insurance company will issue his investment. And a person can also include in the contract a condition under which his contributions will be invested in guaranteed assets at an agreed percentage. When the deadline comes, the original amount will please the new size.


Policyholder – a state, legal entity or individual that has entered into an agreement with the insurer and pays contributions to the fund.

Insured person – a person (group of persons) for whose benefit the contract is concluded. In certain cases, the insured person = the policyholder.

Insurer – a company (state or not) that undertakes an obligation to pay compensation in the event of an insured event.

Mutual insurance society is a kind of consumer cooperative, whose members “insure” each other. Such a society can be viewed as a full-fledged insurer. It must have a license, articles of association, monetary fund, management and supervisory bodies. The property interests of the participants are put under protection.

Tariff – the contribution rate, that is, the amount that must be paid into the fund for a specific insured person or property. The tariff is determined by many factors, for example, age: for a young and healthy person, the tariff will be lower than for an elderly person. Professional affiliation is important: the more dangerous the activity, the higher the tariff. Gender will play a role, because males are more susceptible to all kinds of risks. If property is insured, its value is of decisive importance.

Объект страхования – то, что подлежит защите (авто, квартира, офисное помещение, предпринимательский риск, редкая картина и т.д.)

Insurance risk is an unfavorable situation, from the consequences of which the policyholder wants to protect himself, property, and his loved ones. Insurance always has a high degree of probability, since a dangerous situation may not occur. Therefore, risk is an assumption.

An insured event is always a reality, as opposed to a risk. It is the reality that triggers the contractual mechanism and obliges the company to pay compensation.

Policy is the main document confirming the conclusion of a contract with the insurer.

Insurance indemnity (security) – the amount payable upon the occurrence of an insured event. If a person has been insured against an accident, business risk, theft of property, etc., then it is the compensation that is paid to him. If we are talking about insurance for a specific case (study, marriage), about pension insurance, then the insured receives security, since there is no damage here.

Co insurance – – means a contract between the policyholder and several insurers. In the event of an insured event, the client has the right to apply for compensation to any insurer. If the contract does not contain a clause on how the obligations of the insurers are distributed, it is assumed that they are shared jointly.

Reinsurance – means insurance by one insurer (reinsurer) of the property interests of another insurer (reinsurer). And if the reinsurer cannot reimburse or secure the obligations assumed, then this mission is shifted to the reinsurer.

Страховой портфель – все обязательства, взятые на себя страховой компанией. Портфель оценивается исходя из общей суммы заключенных договоров с клиентами.

Страховой взнос (премия) – денежная сумма, которую должен внести страхователь в страховой фонд организации.

Рейтинг самых надежных страховых компаний

When it comes to safety of life or property, you cannot rely on luck. Unfortunately, there are many known cases of negligence or dishonesty of insurers, omissions, reduced payments and other unpleasant consequences of cooperation with them.

To be sure of a successful outcome, check out the list of the best insurers. Each of the presented companies has won the recognition of partners, rating agencies and, most importantly, customers.

rating of insurance companies

Alpha Insurance

Alpha Insurance is the largest private insurer in
Russia. In 2018, the company was included in the list of 4 insurers that collected
the largest number of contributions.

Alpha Insurance Group has several LLCs specializing in certain types (life, medical), as well as JSC, which is a universal insurer.

The number of awards and recognitions of the company is innumerable: here is the Global Brands Awards – 2018 as the “Favorite insurance brand in Russia”, and the highest ratings of reliability, financial stability, travelers’ trust and many other awards. It is no accident that the number of the company’s clients has already exceeded 20 million.

ingosstrakh photo


Ingosstrakh is one of the leaders in terms of receipts of insurance premiums and, in general, the insurance market.

The company is licensed to carry out reinsurance, medical insurance, OSAGO and CASCO , against accidents, cargo, liability, in a word, almost all types that exist today.

About 80 branches are represented on the territory of Russia, there are branches in India, China, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It is part of the INGO International Group, where Ingosstrakh owns more than half of all capital. He is also a member of many associations and trade unions: the All-Russian Union of Insurers, the Russian Union of Auto Insurers, etc.

Ingosstrakh owns its own network of clinics “Bud
healthy ”, included in the list of the largest Russian clinics.

The company has several awards Golden Salamander, the highest
rating by Standard & Poor’s and Expert RA agencies, as well as
recognition and trust of millions of policyholders.

In general, its motto is “Ingosstrakh pays. Always ”the company justifies 100%.

what is insurance for

VTB Insurance

VTB Insurance is one of the backbone companies
is one of the ten largest collectors of insurance premiums.

Carries out personal insurance, medical,
property, travel insurance, reinsurance and other types. Has about 39
branches across the country.

In 2018, VTB Group became part of SOGAZ.

Part of the All-Russian Union of Insurers,
National Union of Liability Insurers, Interregional Union
medical insurers.

According to Expert RA and Standard & Poor’s, it has
the maximum indicator of reliability and financial stability.

What is especially pleasant is that clients speak very well of the company, note that it is pleasant to deal with it, since there is little chance of stumbling upon pitfalls.

what insurance companies exist


Rosgosstrakh is another flagship of the insurance market,
belonging to the category of strategic companies.

Carries out property, liability, accumulative, investment, CASCO and OSAGO insurance. It has an incredibly extensive network of more than 1,500 offices and branches across Russia.

However, there are cases when Rosgosstrakh openly
violated antitrust laws, moreover, in recent years, the company
suffers huge losses. Today Rosgosstrakh has a ruA rating according to the Expert RA agency, that is, the indicator
the reliability of the company is average.

Да и судя по отзывам клиентов, находиться «под крылом сильной компании» понравилось далеко не всем. Но Росгосстрах остается одной из ведущих страховых компаний России, несмотря на все трудности.

что такое страхование

Tinkoff Insurance

Tinkoff Insurance is a fairly young company,
emerged on the market in 2013.

Specializes in OSAGO, CASCO, accident insurance
cases, diseases, real estate, travel insurance.

A characteristic feature of the company is the absence of branches in the country; the policy can be bought by phone or online.

Tinkoff Insurance is one of the most famous
associations of insurers and has a high level of stability and financial
stability according to Expert RA, despite a short period of existence.

The key feature of Tinkoff Insurance, which is most attractive to people, is customer focus. Reviews about the company are very positive.

Renaissance insurance photo

Ренессанс Страхование

Ренессанс Страхование – крупный страховщик, входящий в категорию системообразующих.

The company is licensed to conduct about 60 types of insurance, including medical insurance, CASCO, OSAGO, cargo and travel insurance. It has about 60 branches across the country, cooperates with renowned international companies that act as reinsurers of Renaissance Insurance.

The company is a member of all prominent associations and unions (BCC,
RSA, Russian Union of Travel Industry).

Expert RA in 2016 assigned the Renaissance a high level of reliability.

Mandatory and voluntary

Fundamental classification involves the division of insurance into compulsory and voluntary .

What features distinguish the two species from each other:

  1. Free will. If mandatory, there is a law containing a list of persons or property, in this case, the will of a person is bound by an indication from above. Voluntary means having a choice – to insure or not.
  2. Scale of distribution. Mandatory is inclusive, and voluntary is selective.
  3. Deadline. Perpetuity can only be inherent in the obligatory. For a voluntary term – this is one of the essential conditions.
  4. Imperative or dispositive. We are talking about the terms of the contract, tariffs, the list of insured events, etc. With regard to compulsory insurance, the parties are guided by the provisions of regulatory enactments. In voluntary insurance, the conditions are changeable.
  5. Ответственность за уклонение. Есть в случае обязательности, нет в случае добровольности.

Compulsory insurance in Russia is represented by the following

  • social (medical,
    pension, industrial accidents, disability);
  • OSAGO;
  • state;
  • transportation of passengers;
  • civil
    responsibility of the owner of the hazardous facility.

All types of social insurance are a manifestation of the state’s concern for its population. Social insurance is aimed at creating minimum guarantees that save the life, health and financial condition of a person in a difficult situation.

OSAGO. Under the OSAGO policy, the driver’s liability is insured for possible harm caused to third parties in an accident with the participation of the insured. If such harm turns from possible into real, the insurance company will pay for the damage caused to the life, health or property of others.

State. Establishes life insurance,
health and property of persons whose professional activity is associated with risk
for yourself or others. The policyholder here is the authorities, and
insurance premiums are paid from budgets. The presence of this kind emphasizes
the public significance of the activities of police officers, prisons, military, judges,
jurors and other categories of citizens.

Перевозки пассажиров. Люди, пользующиеся услугами
перевозки в автобусах, поездах, самолетах, трамваях, троллейбусах, маршрутных
такси, водном транспорте и метрополитене могут рассчитывать на денежную
компенсацию, если в ходе движения их здоровью или имуществу будет нанесен вред.

Гражданской ответственности владельца опасного объекта. Если в ходе использования объекта с повышенным уровнем опасности произойдет авария, пострадавшие 3-и лица получат компенсацию. Речь идет о таких объектах, как рудники, металлургические предприятия, химзаводы, шахты, атомные станции, склады ГСМ и т.п.

Рынок добровольного страхования пестрит разными
видами, но основные – это следующие виды:

  • На определенный случай. Страховое соглашение заключается ради какого-то события, которое случится  в будущем. Это может быть дожитие до конкретного возраста, свадьба, юбилей и т.д. Когда подойдет назначенный срок, страхователь получит выплату.
  • Медицинское. Чтобы расширить пакет возможностей для получения врачебной помощи, люди приобретают полиса ДМС. Можно выбрать подходящую программу или самостоятельно скомбинировать перечень желаемых медуслуг.
  • Жизни и здоровья. При личном страховании жизни или здоровья будет учитываться возраст, половая и профессиональная принадлежность, наличие вредных привычек и хронических заболеваний. Отношения носят долгосрочный характер.
  • Pension. To create an additional reserve for old age, you can use the services of non-state insurance companies and increase the size of your future funded pension.
  • Civil liability insurance. You can voluntarily insure the liability of car owners (DSAGO), water and air transport, professional (doctors, architects, engineers, i.e. specialists who can harm third parties by their actions). They also insure liability for obligations and for damage caused by low-quality services, goods and works.
  • From accidents or illness. If an insured event occurs, for example, the policyholder gets into an accident, acquires an illness, the insurer will pay compensation. The contract is usually concluded for a period of up to 1 year.
  • Cumulative. The company will invest the contributions of the insured in reliable assets, and at the appointed time the person will receive the amount of the contribution + interest.
  • Baby. To protect the child from sprains, bruises, fractures, parents purchase a children’s policy. It allows you to count on treatment in the best clinics. According to the policy, you can take the child for examination if a certificate of health is required.
  • Property. Any property that has monetary value and value for the owner is subject to insurance. Most often, they try to secure real estate, land plots, corporate property, and antiques. Insurance means protection from natural phenomena, accidents and actions of third parties.
  • Transport. Experienced car owners know that OSAGO is good, but OSAGO and CASCO are better. Then under protection there will be not only responsibility to 3 persons, but also the car itself.
  • Entrepreneurial risks. If an entrepreneur intends to protect himself from unforeseen losses caused, for example, by the negligence of a partner or disruption of the production process, he can use this type of insurance.
  • Tourist. Voluntary travel insurance can be added to the compulsory or completely replace it.
  • Sports. Professionals and amateurs involved in extreme or hazardous sports can protect themselves in the event of injury. The contract should indicate those injuries that are most likely to occur. You can insure one person or a team.


Insurance emerged as a response to need
society in protecting the most essential interests.

Key insurance link: the policyholder (the one who
wants to protect), the insurer (the one who guarantees the protection) and the insured
person (in whose favor the contract is concluded).

The policyholder is required to pay certain
insurance premiums by agreement or law, and from the insurer – to throw a rescue
circle in the form of monetary compensation if the policyholder begins to sink into
consequences of the insured event.

Russia has no shortage of insurers.
Promises of loyalty, reliability and mountains of gold are pouring in from all sides. But
preference should be given to trusted companies such as Rosgosstrakh, VTB
and Alpha Insurance, Ingosstrakh.